What is genetics?

Galina Mirzahmedova
Galina Mirzahmedova
January 13, 2015
What is genetics?

The branch of biology and medicine - genetics has reached a high development these days. What is genetics? It is a science that studies the patterns that are present in biological objects (organisms) in terms of heredity and variability of the genetic apparatus.

Genetics as a science

Science genetics, depending on the object, can study the development and heredity of plants, animals, humans, bacteria, fungi, viruses. Depending on the level of research, population genetics are distinguished (examines patterns in the inheritance of certain traits at the population level), biochemical (studies which substances encode particular genes), molecular and cytogenetics (similar to biochemical genetics).

The main and main object that studies genetics as a science is the genetic apparatus of living organisms (DNA and RNA). It encodes all the information about organisms in the form of nucleotide sequences. The founder of science (classical genetics) is considered to be Gregor Mendel,who was engaged in crossing (hybridization) of plants in the nineteenth century and discovered three basic laws of genetics: the law of uniformity of hybrids of the first generation, the law of splitting of signs, and the law of independent inheritance of characters.

The word "genetics" is used, for example, in this sentence: "Human genetics is a science that studies the patterns of heredity and variability of anomalous and normal signs of the human body."