What are plains?

The land relief is a collection of oceans and seas and land surface irregularities, which differ in age, origin and size. It consists of forms that fit together. The relief of the Earth is quite diverse: the giant depressions of the oceans and vast expanses of land, endless plains and mountains, high hills and deep gorges. The plains occupy the main part of the earth's surface. This article will give a complete description of the plain.

Mountains and plains

The study of the reliefs of the Earth engaged in various sciences. The main landforms of the land are mountains and plains. Geography can most fully answer the question regarding what mountains and plains are. Plains - land areas occupying 60% of the Earth’s surface. Mountains occupy 40%. Definition of mountains and plains:

  • Plains are quite extensive land areas with small slopes and slight fluctuations in altitude.
  • The mountains are vast, raised high above the plains and sharply dissected land areas with significant elevation differences. The structure of the mountains: folded or folded-block.

The absolute height of the mountains are divided into:

  • Lowlands. The height of these mountains to 1000m. They usually have gentle tops, rounded slopes and relatively wide valleys. These include some of the mountains of northern Russia, Central Europe, such as the Khibiny on the Kola Peninsula.
  • Midlands. Their height ranges from 1000m to 2000m. These include the Apennines and the Pyrenees, the Carpathian and Crimean Mountains, and others.
  • Highlands. These mountains have a height of more than 2000m. These are the Alps, the Himalayas, the Caucasus and others.

Plains classification

Plains are divided into types according to different characteristics, for example, height, type of surface, the history of their development and their structure. Types of plains in absolute height:

  1. Plains lying below sea level. An example would be such depressions as Cattara, its height is 133m below sea level, the Turfan Basin, the Caspian Lowland.
  2. Lowland Plains. The height of such plains ranges from 0 to 200m. These include the largest plains of the world, the Amazon and La Plata lowlands.
  3. Elevated plains have a height of 200m to 500m. An example is the Great Victoria Desert.
  4. Mountainous plateaus above 500m, such as the Ustyurt plateau, the Great Plains of North America and others.

The surface of the plain is sloping, horizontal, convex or concave. According to the type of surface, there are plains: hilly, undulating, wilted, stepped.As a rule, the higher the plains, the more they are dissected. Types of plains also depend on the history of development and their structure:

  • alluvial valleys such as the Great Plain of China, the Karakum Desert, etc .;
  • glacial valleys;
  • water-glacial, for example Polesie, foothills of the Alps, the Caucasus and the Altai;
  • flat lowland marine plains. Such plains are a narrow strip along the coasts of the seas and oceans. These are such plains as the Caspian and the Black Sea.

There are plains that arose at the site of the mountains after their destruction. They are composed of solid crystalline rocks and folded into folds. Such plains are called denudation. Examples of them are the Kazakh small-sandy mountains, the plains of the Baltic and Canadian shields.

The climate of the plain depends on what climate zone they are in and on which air masses influence them. This article systematized the data on the main reliefs of the Earth and gave an idea of ​​what mountains are and what a plain is.