The state of nirvana: how to achieve it? Types of Nirvana
The concept of nirvana is found in many teachings and beliefs. It means freedom from torture. In common usenirvana is a state where there are no passions, tortures, and there is the highest happiness and peace. This is an unknown feeling of constant peace and joy.
Nirvana acts as a rupture in the chain of reincarnations. This is a stop of reincarnation, a constant and indestructible peace. Nirvana is difficult to determine. As for her understanding, there are constant discussions between Buddhist scholars. In the understanding of Hindus and followers of Brahmanism, nirvana is a conjunction with Brahma.
How is it possible to achieve nirvana in Buddhism and what does it mean?
According to the Buddha's belief, despite the anguish that permeates every stage of existence in Samsara, there is a state without suffering, and it is possible to achieve it. It is a state of trance or nirvana.Entry into a given state in the teachings of the Buddha is denoted by the term Amata, that is, the attainment of the soul, which destroys the chain of karmic existence.
What is nirvana? By definition, it is a state of mind, freedom from worldly cares and affections, complete enlightenment and knowledge of the Truth
In the sutra pitaka, nirvana is designated as a citta (liberated mind) that does not have any feelings. Oazum is no longer identified with the phenomenon of life, it is permanent, eternal, therefore liberated. Nirvana is the end of ignorance (avidya), which immerses the mind in a constant chain of reincarnations, sansara (life in addictions). In the exact designation, nirvana is not considered a clear place or state. She is the knowledge of the Truth.
What is nirvana?
We will try to understand what nirvana is, where this concept comes from. In particular, what does the word nirvana mean in philosophy? Briefly - this is the ultimate ultimate goal of human existence. This term is considered to be similar in meaning to a relaxed and blissful state. But in the 60s, this concept in a twisted form entered the lexicon of people who use drugs. To consider nirvana as a state of euphoria is a gross mistake.This condition is considered the most difficult in Buddhism. He was not even able to characterize even the Buddha Shakyamuni.
nirvana in philosophy is the ultimate ultimate goal of human existence
Everybody knows the phrase"Fall into nirvana". By it they mean something very pleasant, a kind of peak of pleasure, a feeling of constant bliss. One can fall into Nirvana on various occasions: from an incredible dish, beautiful music, from intimate pleasures. But in reality, this understanding is entirely erroneous.
In the teachings of the Buddha nirvana called supreme happiness, but here it is not necessary to understand it as a joy that is available in worldly life. The followers of the Buddha by happiness mean freedom from the suffering in the world every day. Shakyamuni said that nirvana is the end of torment, misting of the mind, affection. The problem is that he did not give a similar definition of any "positive" definition. Mentioning only that can not be considered nirvana.
Religious scholar and researcher E.Torchinov noticed that the problem of nirvana is one of those that Buddha did not talk about. Nirvana is located far beyond the scope of empirical knowledge, and also such a description language.
Among researchers and followers of the Buddha’s teachings, there is still debate about the correctness of understanding the state of nirvana
In Buddhism, it is described as something in contrast to Sansara. The latter is the world of passion, affection, false notions, torment. If you clear yourself of this, then the enlightened person will reach nirvana and be freed, not only from the body, but from inclinations and consciousness. The difference with Brahmanism is that in the Buddha’s teaching it is not a union with an absolute or a god, since this union means the continuation of existence.
So, nirvana is absolute non-existence? Not certainly in that way. Although scholars and teachers of Buddhism to date, there are disputes about the adequacy of the interpretation of such a term. Many still agree in opinion that this is a complete cleansing of the world from living beings. This is the peace of the soul, where there is no disagreement, torment and passion. Other teachers interpret this state as follows: there is no life in it, as understood in Samsara, but there is a life potential and energy.
In the teachings of the Buddha Nirvana is called the supreme happiness, that is, freedom from suffering
Everything mentioned above is attributed to the great Nirvana.It is also called nirvana stay. Those who reach it are in absolute peace. In the teachings of the Buddha, there are other types -nirvana non-stay. People who have reached the state of nirvana are called bodhisattvas. They give up absolute peace and care because they help the rest of the living and lead them on this path. All because they were able to revive great compassion in their own soul, they are ready to help everyone who appeals to them. Bodhisattvas are celebrated while reading prayers, they are painted on a tank.
The most famous Bodhisattva is Avalokitesvara. According to legend, when he entered the state of enlightenment, he noticed what kind of suffering beings living in Sansara. He was so amazed that the head of Avalokiteshvara was broken into 11 parts from the pain. But the rest of the enlightened ones helped, and they recovered their heads. From that moment on, Avalokiteshvara helps others to escape from suffering and learn nirvana.
There are several varieties of nirvana. In different teachings, it is interpreted in its own way. It is impossible to say unequivocally what exactly this state means.
Is there a chance to reach nirvana from other living beings? How to go to nirvana? It is difficult to answer the question.It is believed that this path is long for everyone, and it lasts innumerable reincarnations until karma is completely cleared of obscurations.
Types of Nirvana
There are various types of nirvana. In the Buddha’s teaching it is:
- unknown state of constant rest and absolute satisfaction;
- the destruction of the chain of rebirths, the end of rebirths, complete, unbreakable peace;
- it defies any definition;
- among scholars and Buddhists, there is still debate about the correct understanding of nirvana.
There are different types of nirvana according to different teachings.
But from different sources we distinguish the division into 3 types of nirvana:
- mental. It is a short fortune that happened to any person. Everyone sometimes caught a moment of incredible peace, as well as enlightenment. This is called the mental manifestation of nirvana;
- vital. This nirvana can be achieved by man, if his soul is still in the body. This gives a chance to break the chain of rebirth and leads a person to a new species;
- everlasting. Those who were able to achieve the previous type of nirvana after the death of the body, i.e. after death, befalls her.
ATtheravadeThere are 2 types of nirvana:
- «with the remainder".In this state, there is a saint in Buddhism, before leaving the chain of reincarnation. The remainder is called the body, it bears the name of the "last";
- «no residue". In this case, the Buddhist saint “calms down” the full set of dharmas, and he himself forever ceases to exist.
How to fall into nirvana?
The problem of how to get into nirvana, enter its life form, worries all followers of the Buddha. After all, this is the goal of their lives. It is impossible to achieve freedom after, if you have not achieved the achievement of nirvana during this life. Otherwise, you will have to live another, with new twists and turns and passions.
Initially, it is worth realizing the very understanding of freedom that is perceived in the state of nirvana. This exemption from any addiction. Worldly attachments add vulnerabilities to us, this is a doom to suffering. We will certainly lose what is dear to us, and before the moment of loss always comes fear.
To achieve nirvana, you need to learn to live in the present moment and disconnect from the thoughts and affections of the outside world.
Slow damping of worldly desires can be achievedusing many practices from the teachings of the Buddhaand from others.Those who have achieved nirvana claim that this can be done in a variety of ways. Hypnosis, meditation, prayer - each has its own path. None of them will give a guarantee of enlightenment, only a person will be able to break the constant circle of rebirths. Many do not like the idea of "insensitivity." And what does "I went to nirvana" mean? This is, above all, the willingness to be free from all worldly things. For this reason, you will have to come to such a decision calmly and deliberately in order to cut the chain of endless reincarnation with a firm hand. So, consider the technique of entering nirvana:
- Be in a lotus position and breathe. Breath is one of the few permanent in life, it is with us always. Feel the flow of air through you. Breathing is necessary through the nose, as breathing in and out with your mouth will only increase the heart rate and increase anxiety. If you breathe through your nose, it will bring relaxation. Focus your attention on exhalations. In the process of exhalation, nothing happens, all the excess disappears, you relax. For this reason, when breathing, concentrate on exhaling.
- Ask yourself what you are doing now.Perhaps at the moment you are trying to read, but where are the thoughts in reality? What are they connected with? What does your body do? If at the moment you want to read, then do it. We have too many worries in the world. There is nothing strange in the fact that life is presently incomprehensible because of them.
- Speak witness. This means observing and realizing what happens to a person every second. Pay attention to it, step back, then the past will recede. It is not necessary to concentrate the mind on one moment, otherwise you will find yourself trapped.
- Release everything. If the witness lives inside, it is turned to the present, then release everything that is not present at the moment. Stay here and now.
- Breathe again. If thoughts and the world intervene again and take you away from the current point in time, return to conscious breathing.
The technique of entering nirvana begins with the lotus position and even breathing
Thus, the attainment of Nirvana is possible through conscious breathing, turning off thoughts about attachments and problems of the external world, worldly life. It is impossible to reach nirvana without letting go of the past and the future. The sign of Nirvana is here and now.As soon as you learn through meditation to break the connection with the world, you will step on the path to achieving this state of enlightenment, you will be freed from suffering. The followers of the Buddha give their whole life to this path, this is their main goal of being. Each of us has our own way to enter into nirvana and learn the truth.