How to make milk?
Nature, gives us an invaluably useful and necessary product - milk. But, as milk is made, and what this process is, you now have to find out. Milk consists of fats, proteins, carbohydrates and mineral salts. Milk contains almost all the vitamins and microelements necessary for a person. But there is one major drawback to this product - milk quickly deteriorates. This is easily explained by the fact that microorganisms, when they enter the milk, the excellent nutrient medium for them, begin to multiply rapidly. In order to prevent this, milk is amenable to special treatment.
Usually, at home, milk is boiled. But at the same time, all the useful components of milk are amenable to irreversible changes. Usually, in dairies, it comes differently. Milk is heated to 70-90 degrees for a short time, and kept at this temperature. As a result, harmful bacteria die, and the valuable components of milk remain unchanged. This method of treatment was first proposed by the French scientist Louis Pasteur, in whose honor this method was called pasteurization.Well, now, about each stage of milk production in more detail. Let's tell how to make milk in the workplace.
Each batch of milk that enters the factory is strictly controlled. Acceptance and evaluation of the quality of milk usually begin with inspection of the container in which it was brought. Then the organoleptic testing of milk is performed, that is, the milk is tested for smell, color, texture and taste. Soon, a small part of the milk is collected, with the aim of analyzing it in the laboratory, to determine its composition and the bacterial environment located in the milk. When the analysis is ready and a positive result is given for the samples, the milk is sorted.
To purify milk from mechanical impurities, special filters are used, which have a different design. Also, various filter materials are used - filters made of cotton wool, gauze or fabric from livsan.
The most advanced and high-quality method of cleaning milk is considered the separator method. That is, simply put, the milk is placed in a special drum-centrifuge, which rotates at a certain speed.During rotation, foreign particles, which have a greater density than the density of the particles of milk plasma, are deposited on the walls of the centrifuge. In the process of such an operation, the smallest particles of impurities are removed, including even those of bacterial origin. After the purification stage, the milk is very quickly cooled to a low temperature, in order to avoid the growth of microflora.
The process of separation of milk is used to separate part of the milk into cream - a fatty product, and skimmed milk. This process takes place with the help of a special separator - cream separator.
Such a process as normalization is used to regulate the chemical composition of milk to the norm, that is, up to the values set by the standards and specifications. Take into account the proportion of fat in milk, dry matter, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Most of all, normalization is carried out on a mass, percentage of fat in milk.
Homogenization, carried out for cream and milk mixture. This is the process of crushing balls of fat, when a significant external force is applied to a product, that is, the product is given a uniform shape and consistency.
If you once heard the word pasteurization and understand what it means, then how milk is made, it will be easy for you to understand, since these two processes are directly interconnected. But closer to the point. As a rule, pasteurization is carried out at temperatures lower than the boiling point. It is 65-90 degrees Celsius. The purpose of pasteurization is as follows:
- Destroy the pathogenic microflora, and get a product safe for the consumer regarding the standards of sanitation and hygiene.
- Reduce the level of bacterial contamination of milk, destroy the enzymes of the raw product, which can cause spoilage of pasteurized milk, reducing its durability and shelf life.
- Change the physico-chemical properties of milk to obtain the specified standards of the finished product. These are usually organoleptic properties - viscosity and density of the product.
Industrial pasteurization is a process of processing milk at a temperature of 75-77 degrees, with a shutter speed of about 20 seconds, which can fully ensure hygienic reliability and the destruction of harmful bacteria, while maintaining the nutritional and biological value of milk.
To know how to make milk, you need to know about the sterilization process, which is used for the manufacture of hygienically and sanitary-safe product, and for the duration of its storage without changing any qualities.
Of the most cost-effective and reliable sterilization methods, a thermal method is used in milk production. The essence of the method consists in processing milk at high temperatures, above one hundred degrees, with aging, in order to destroy all the spores and bacteria existing in milk. Also for deactivation of enzymes, with minimal loss of taste in the finished product. Thus, the finished product can be stored for about a year, but subject to tightness of the container. The most used method is heat treatment of milk in a temperature flow of 135-155 degrees, with a few seconds exposure, followed by packing it under aseptic conditions in sterile packaging.
Sterilized milk, though kept longer than pasteurized milk, is inferior in taste to it. How do you make milk in our factories, you have already understood, basically, this is exactly the same process at all plants, using the same technology and processing.